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Recently I got a short notice invitation for a century (100 mile) ride from Costa Mesa to downtown San Diego.  This is how i prepped (mechanically) for it.  I picked the most comfortable and speedy bike out of the stable.  The problem with me is that I don’t have one daily ridden bicycle and for a big ride like this, knowing that your bike is in good mechanical shape is very important.  I pulled my Litespeed Tuscany out of the stable and gave her a tuneup and checkup.  This is definitely one of the best bikes i have for this kind of ride. Its light and fast but also relaxed and comfortable enough for a long ride.  It has a full Shimano Ultegra group which is very predictable and robust.
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This is the time to true your wheels.  Sometimes a wheel being a little off true can become a huge riding and braking issue on a long trip with big up and down gradients.  I also had nice Michelin tires on but they were showing a bit of age and for a trip like this there is no risk taking, just change them out.
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After the tuneup I had to make some adjustments to the bike for the longer than usual ride.  First, i changed out the track’ish style Suntour pedals for a set of MKS Sylvans.  The Sylvans are my “keep it real” pedals.  They’re comfortable, high quality, and not too expensive.  Come to think of it, they’re great for any occasion actually.
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I added some toe cages to the pedals because efficiency is the key for a long ride.  You want to be able to pull on the cranks as much as you are pushing on them.
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Aero bars serve two purposes.  Firstly, there are going to be some sections where the wind is going to be nuts and you’re going to need to tuck yourself in to avoid it as much as you can.  Secondly, on a long ride, your shoulders and arms usually fatigue from holding your body up.  This is when you give them a break by resting your elbows on the pads for awhile.  I also find that when my back aches, sitting straight up and holding the elbow pads to steer eases the pressure off my back for awhile.
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Saddle bags are great for any long distance trip, they’ll keep your stuff dry and off your back.  Mini emergency tool boxes are great too, or you can just stuff the necessities into your saddle bag. 
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Always bring tubes because man it will happen to you if you ride enough. Its not a matter of if but a matter of when you’ll run over glass or a thorn or a sharp rock, etc.  And bring a pump.  If you are going a long ways, bring a foldable tire too. 
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There are going to be lots of other riders on the road, don't forget to represent.
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Here it is fully geared up.  Now the only thing you can blame for being slow is yourself.