Great article on the differences in component levels and what you’re actually paying the difference in price for.  Most of the time its about tooling/ manufacturing costs.  Then its about the costs of materials used. Then sometimes its straight up for the sake of setting price points.

Check out this great article that goes in depth into the differences between Ultegra and Dura Ace.

Bikeshport:  Ultegra Vs Dura Ace